دوره 36، شماره 488: هفته چهارم شهریور ماه 1397:823-837

مقدمه‌ای بر مهندسی بافت و پرکاربردترین داربست‌های مورد استفاده در آن

الهام قنبری , لیلا ناصری, مظفر خزاعی, محسن اکبری, فاطمه الهیان, سیدعباس میرزایی, اکرم علیزاده

DOI: 10.22122/jims.v36i488.10056

چکیده


مقدمه: در دنياى مدرن امروزى، انسان در معرض طيف وسيعى از بيمارى‌ها و آسيب‌هاى بافتی قرار دارد که برخى از آن‌ها با روش‌هاى رايج پزشكى غير قابل درمان می‌باشند. در این آسیب‌ها، بخش وسيعى از بافت و عملکرد آن از بين می‌رود و مكانيسم‌هاى ترمیمی طبيعى بدن قادر به بازسازى آن نيستند. درمان چنين ضایعاتی، به عهده‌ی شاخه‌اى از علوم پزشكى موسوم به طب ترميمى و مهندسی بافت است. يكى از ابزارهاى طب ترميمى، پيوند سازه‌هاى شبه بافت مهندسى شده است. از آن جایی که مهم‌ترین جزء در مهندسی یک بافت، داربست آن است، هدف از انجام مقاله‌ی حاضر، معرفی مهندسی بافت و پرکاربردترین مواد و داربست‌های مورد استفاده در آن می‌باشد. مقاله‌ی حاضر با استفاده از مقالات جستجو شده در پایگاه‌های مختلف نظیر Pubmed، Scopus، Scientific Information Database (SID)، Springer، Medlib، SinceDirect، Magiran و موتور جستجوی Google scholar نگارش شده است. تحقيقات مختلف و نتايج بالينى به دست آمده، نشان می‌دهد که به كمك مهندسى بافت، می‌توان سازه‌هایی مشابه بافت‌های طبیعی طراحى كرد. اين سازه‌ها، از سه جزء داربست، سلول و عوامل رشد ساخته می‌شوند. در ساخت این سازه‌ها، طراحى داربست ايده‌آل با خواص و استحكام مكانيكى مطلوب اهمیت زیادی دارد كه وابسته به نوع ماده و روش ساخت آن است. پزشکی بازساختی و مهندسی بافت، در بازسازی یا جایگزینی بافت‌های آسیب دیده، اقدامی موفقیت‌آمیز و مورد نیاز می‌باشد.


واژگان کلیدی


پزشکی بازساختی؛ مهندسی بافت؛ داربست بافتی

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