دوره 36، شماره 501: هفته اول دی ماه 1397:1297-1307

کاربردهای سلول درمانی و ژن درمانی در آسیب های نخاعی

حوری عدالت

DOI: 10.22122/jims.v36i501.10981

چکیده


از سلول‌های بنیادی به دلیل تکثیر فراوان و خود بازسازی، روش امیدوار کننده‌ای در درمان آسیب‌های نخاعی به حساب می‌آید. به دلیل قابلیت‌های متعدد سلول‌های بنیادی، پیشرفت‌های فراوانی در زمینه‌ی ژن‌درمانی و به ویژه سلول‌درمانی در سه سطح آزمایشگاهی، پیش‌بالینی و بالینی تا کنون حاصل شده‌اند، اما به منظور این که این روش‌های درمانی در نهایت به سطح بالینی وارد گردند، باید یک سری موانع همچون موانع اخلاقی، تومورزایی، رد ایمنی، تمایز به سلول‌های غیر هدف و مشکلات مربوط به آزمایش‌های انسانی را پشت سر بگذارند. در این خصوص، راهبردهای بهینه‌سازی در زمینه‌ی مسیر، محل و زمان تزریق نیز صورت گرفته است. بررسی منابع نشان می‌دهد که هنوز سلول‌های بنیادی مزانشیمی نسبت به سایر انواع سلول‌های بنیادی جهت کاربردهای بالینی مزیت ویژه‌ای دارند، هر چند پیش‌بینی می‌شود در آینده‌ای نزدیک، روش تبدیل مستقیم سلول‌ها به یکدیگر، توانایی جایگزینی روش پیوند سلول‌های بنیادی مزانشیمی را داشته باشد. نظر به پاتوفیزیولوژی پیچیده‌ی آسیب‌های نخاعی، کاربرد ترکیبی از روش‌های درمانی به طور هم‌زمان (به طور مثال سلول‌درمانی، ژن‌درمانی و پیوند هم‌زمان چند نوع سلول در ترکیب با داربست‌های نانو) از چشم‌اندازهای مفید در درمان این بیماری محسوب می‌شود. در نهایت، به دلایل ایمنی مرتبط با روش‌های سلول‌درمانی و ژن‌درمانی آسیب‌های نخاعی واجب است که بیماران در درمان‌های تجربی خارج از آزمایش‌های بالینی رسمی شرکت ننمایند.


واژگان کلیدی


آسیب‌های نخاعی؛ سلول‌درمانی؛ ژن‌درمانی

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