دوره 37، شماره 521: هفته اول خرداد ماه 1398:316-327

وقایع بیوشیمیایی و سلولی در آسیب‌های نخاعی: ازپاتوفیزیولوژی تا درمان

حوری عدالت

DOI: 10.22122/jims.v37i521.11165

چکیده


هنوز درمان قطعی برای آسیب‌های نخاعی که در اثر عوامل ترومایی (ناشی از حادثه) و غیر ترومایی (ناشی از بیماری‌ها) ایجاد می‌شوند، یافت نشده است و این امر به دلیل پاتوفیزیولوژی پیچیده‌ای است که این آسیب‌ها دارند؛ به ویژه اگر بیماری در مراحل مزمن باشد. این مسأله هزینه‌های اقتصادی و روانی گزافی را به خانواده و اجتماع تحمیل می‌نماید. از نظر بالینی، پاتوفیزیولوژی این بیماران به دو فاز اصلی آسیب اولیه و ثانویه تقسیم‌بندی می‌گردد. آسیب اولیه با ضایعه به نخاع شروع می‌شود و طی یک سری وقایع مولکولی ثانویه که به صورت آبشاری اتفاق می‌افتد، یک حفره‌ی بزرگ در ناحیه‌ی آسیب تشکیل می‌دهد و زخم گلیایی را ایجاد می‌کند که سد فیزیکی و شیمیایی در مقابل ترمیم نخاع آسیب‌دیده می‌باشد. به طور کلی، موانعی بر سر راه ترمیم نورون‌ها و درمان قطعی آسیب‌های نخاعی وجود دارد که استراتژی‌های ترمیمی مورد استفاده در درمان این بیماری باید بر این سدها غلبه کند. بسیاری از استراتژی‌های پیشنهادی، در مراحل آزمایشگاهی و پیش‌بالینی موفق بوده و حتی به مرحله‌ی بالینی نیز رسیده‌اند. پژوهش مروری حاضر، خلاصه‌ای از آخرین یافته‌های درمانی مؤثر در این بیماری را ارایه نمود.


واژگان کلیدی


آسیب‌های نخاعی؛ درمان؛ جنبه‌های سلولی؛ مدل‌های مولکولی

تمام متن:

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