دوره 37، شماره 553: هفته اول بهمن ماه 1398:1298-1312

تأثیر مداخلات آموزشی بر دانش و نگرش نوجوانان در مورد واکسن پاپیلوما ویروس انسانی: یک مطالعه‌ی مروری نظام‌مند

مژده بنائی , معصومه سیمبر , ساناز صفرزاده , حدیث شاه‌رحمانی , اعظم خیابانی

DOI: 10.22122/jims.v37i553.12373

چکیده


مقدمه: ویروس پاپیلومای انسانی (Human papillomavirus یا HPV) شایع‌ترین عفونت جنسی منتقل ‌شده به ‌ویژه در افراد زیر 25 سال می‌باشد که اغلب به دلیل عدم آگاهی و باور غلط انتقال می‌یابد. با توجه به نقش پیش سرطانی این ویروس و اهمیت پیش‌گیري از آن، تزریق واکسن HPV در تمام کشورها مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. از این ‌رو، بهبود آگاهی و نگرش در میان نوجوانان ضروری به نظر می‌رسد. بنابراین، مطالعه‌ی مرور نظام‌مند حاضر، با هدف بررسی تأثیر مداخلات آموزشی بر دانش و نگرش دختران نوجوان در مورد واکسن HPV انجام شد.

روش‌ها: در این مطالعه‌ی مرور نظام‌مند، همه‌ی مطالعات کمی منتشر شده، بدون محدودیت زمانی بررسی شدند. جستجوی مطالعات در پایگاه‌های اطلاعاتی انگلیسی و فارسي انجام شد. واژگان کلیدی بر اساس Mesh و شامل «Knowledge»، «Attitudes»، «Papillomavirus vaccines»، «Gardasil» و «Intervention study» بودند که با عملگرهای Boolean «OR» و «AND» ترکیب شدند. در نهایت، دو پژوهشگر به ‌طور مستقل مقالات را جهت ارزیابی کیفیت و استخراج یافته‌ها مورد بررسی قرار دادند.

یافته‌ها: 21 مقاله با حجم نمونه‌ی کلی 10086 نفر انتخاب شد. مقالات از نوع کارآزمایی بالینی تصادفی، غیر تصادفی و شبه تجربی بودند و سال انتشار آن‌ها بین 2019-2008 بود. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان داد که مداخلات آموزشی بر اساس مدل اعتقاد بهداشتی، مدل آموزش همسالان، مداخلات مبتنی بر مدرسه و به ‌صورت سایر مداخلات آموزشی بود. مدل اعتقاد بهداشتی و مداخلات مبتنی بر مدرسه، شایع‌ترین چارچوب‌ها در طراحی مداخلات آموزشی در مورد واکسن پاپیلوما ویروس انسانی در میان نوجوانان بود. در تمامی مطالعات، انواع مداخلات آموزشی تأثیر مثبتی بر افزایش دانش و بهبود نگرش نوجوانان نسبت به واکسن HPV داشتند.

نتیجه‌گیری: انواع مداخلات آموزشی به ‌صورت مدل Health belief model (HBM)، مدل آموزش هم‌سالان، مداخلات مبتنی بر مدرسه و سایر مداخلات آموزشی، می‌تواند منجر به افزایش دانش و نگرش افراد نسبت به واکسن HPV شوند. با توجه به مؤثر بودن مداخلات آموزشی بر اساس مدل اعتقاد بهداشتی و مداخلات مبتنی بر مدرسه بر افزایش دانش و نگرش نوجوانان در مورد این واکسن، طراحی و اجرای مداخلات در مدارس پیشنهاد می‌شود.


واژگان کلیدی


واکسن پاپیلوما ویروس؛ گارداسیل؛ نگرش؛ دانش؛ آموزش

تمام متن:

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