دوره 31، شماره 265: هفته سوم بهمن ماه 1392:2063-2080

مقایسه‌ی ویژگی‌های عصب- روان‌شناختی در کودکان پیش دبستانی عادی و مبتلا به اختلال هماهنگی رشدی

مرتضی محمودی, احمد عابدی, اقبال شفیعی, احمد یارمحمدیان, ولی‌اله کرمی‌منش, عظیمه‌السادات فاطمی

چکیده


مقدمه: کودکان مبتلا به اختلال هماهنگی رشدی در فعالیت‌های حرکتی دچار مشکل هستند. مشخصه‌‌ی اصلی این اختلال، نارسایی‌های حرکتی است. این کودکان علاوه بر مشکلات حرکتی، در حوزه‌های دیگر نیز با مشکلاتی مواجهند. هدف این پژوهش، بررسی و مقایسه‌ی ویژگی‌های عصب- روان‌شناختی بود که طی آن کارکرد اجرایی و توجه و عملکرد‌های حسی- حرکتی، زبان، حافطه و یادگیری مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.

روش‌ها: پژوهش حاضر به شیوه‌ی علی- مقایسه‌ای اجرا شده است. جامعه‌ی آماری شامل کلیه‌ی کودکان پیش دبستانی 6 ساله‌ی شهر اصفهان بود. آزمودنی‌ها شامل 50 کودک مبتلا به اختلال هماهنگی رشدی و 50 کودک عادی بود که با روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای چند مرحله‌ای انتخاب شدند. برای جمع‌آوری داده‌‌ها از پرسش‌نامه‌ی عصب- روان‌شناختی Connor و برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها از آزمون MANOVA استفاده شد.

یافته‌ها: بین ویژگی‌های عصب- روان‌شناختی (کارکرد اجرایی و توجه و عملکردهای حسی- حرکتی، زبان، حافظه و یادگیری)کودکان مبتلا به اختلال هماهنگی رشد و کودکان عادی، تفاوت معنی‌دار مشاهده شد (05/0 > P برای همه‌ی موارد).

نتیجه‌گیری: این پژوهش نشان داد کودکان مبتلا به اختلال هماهنگی رشدی در حوزه‌های عصب-روان‌‌شناختی متفاوتند و در مقایسه با کودکان عادی در سطح پایین‌تری قرار دارند و مشکلات حرکتی نیمرخ عصب-روان‌شناختی این گروه از کودکان را تحت تأثیر قرار داده است.


واژگان کلیدی


اختلال هماهنگی رشدی؛ ویژگی‌های عصب- روان‌شناختی؛ پیش دبستانی

تمام متن:

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