دوره 32، شماره 313: هفته دوم بهمن ماه 1393:2165-2173

سلول‌های جنینی در خون مادر: جنبه‌های بالینی و تکنیکی

میثم مصلایی, رسول صالحی

چکیده


روش‌های رایج برای به دست آوردن نمونه از جنین برای تشخیص پیش از تولد، برای جنین و مادر خطرناک می‌باشد. این موضوع سبب انجام تلاش‌های زیاد دانشمندان در زمینه‌ی به دست آوردن سلول‌های جنینی به روش‌های غیر تهاجمی شده است که ازآن جمله، به دست آوردن آن‌ها از خون محیطی مادران باردار قابل ذکر است. انواع سلول‌هایی که توسط بسیاری از دانشمندان در سر تا سر جهان بر روی آن‌ها در این زمینه مطالعه صورت گرفته است، شامل لوکوسیت‌های جنینی به ویژه لنفوسیت‌ها و گرانولوسیت‌ها، گلبول‌های قرمز هسته‌دار جنینی و سلول‌های تروفوبلاست می‌باشد. بسیاری از مطالعات بر روی گلبول‌های قرمز هسته‌دار جنینی صورت گرفته است که از علل این توجه می‌توان به میزان بالای این سلول‌ها در خون مادر در اوایل بارداری، سرعت تمایز این سلول‌ها و نیمه‌عمر کوتاه آن‌ها در خون مادر و در نهایت، نشان‌گرهای اختصاصی‌ای که برای جدا سازی این سلول‌ها وجود دارد، اشاره نمود. به هر حال، میزان این سلول‌ها در خون مادر بسیار کم است که نیاز به تکنیک‌های مناسبی برای خالص سازی آن‌ها دارد. در حال حاضر، تکنیک‌هایی که به طور معمول مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرند، شامل جداسازی سلولی به روش فعال‌سازی فلئورسنتی، جداسازی مغناطیسی و جداسازی بر اساس شیب بار می‌باشد. پس چنانچه سلول‌های جنینی جداسازی شوند، می‌توان از آن‌ها در کاربردهای بالینی همانند غربال‌گری برای ناهنجاری‌های کروموزومی به وسیله‌ی تکنیک هیبریداسیون فلئورسنتی درجا، یا تشخیص ناهنجاری‌های ژنی با استفاده از واکنش زنجیره‌ای پلیمریزاسیون استفاده نمود.

 


واژگان کلیدی


تشخیص پیش از تولد؛ سلول‌های جنینی؛ غیر تهاجمی؛ خون مادر

تمام متن:

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مراجع


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