دوره 33، شماره 351: هفته سوم آبان ماه 1394:1584-1596

نقش عوامل رونویسی در تنظیم توسعه و تمایز سلول‌های شبکیه‌ی عصبی

راضیه حیدری, فاطمه ناظم رعایا, مجید خیراللهی

چکیده


شبکیه‌ی عصبی بخشی از Diencephalon است که به دلیل ساختار به نسبت ساده، به عنوان یک مدل مناسب برای مطالعه‌ی مکانیسم‌های ملکولی توسعه‌ی سیستم عصبی مرکزی کاربرد دارد. حس بینایی، حاصل عملکرد شش نوع نورون است که در ساختار شبکیه‌ی عصبی سازمان‌دهی شده است. پیدایش شبکیه‌ی عصبی، حاصل تکثیر یک سلول پیش‌ساز مشترک در لایه‌ی داخلی جام بینایی است که تحت عوامل متفاوت در یک شیوه‌ی وابسته به زمان و حفاظت شده در پستانداران، صلاحیت تمایز به سرنوشت‌های مختلف سلولی را کسب می‌کند. تخریب و فقدان عملکرد سلول‌های شبکیه در بیماری‌های مختلف شبکیه ایجاد می‌شود و فرایند بینایی را در انسان دچار اختلال می‌سازد. عدم بازسازی سلول‌های عصبی آسیب دیده‌ی شبکیه در پستانداران از جمله انسان، یک مشکل شناخته شده است؛ در دهه‌های اخیر، طیف وسیعی از تحقیقات در زمینه‌ی چشم به بررسی امکان جایگزینی سلول‌های شبکیه اختصاص داده شده و تلاش‌های زیادی برای درمان این بیماری‌ها انجام شده است. مطالعه و شناسایی عوامل رونویسی دخیل در تمایز نورونی، می‌تواند ابزار سودمندی در ژن درمانی با هدف بازسازی نورون‌های شبکیه در آینده‌ی نزدیک فراهم سازد.


واژگان کلیدی


عامل رونویسی؛ شبکیه‌ی عصبی؛ سلول‌های پیش‌ساز شبکیه

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