دوره 33، شماره 354: هفته دوم آذر ماه 1394:1730-1739

بررسی میزان دوز سطحی پوست و دوز مؤثر برای رادیوگرافی در بخش مراقبت‌های ویژه‌ی نوزادان

داریوش شهبازی گهرویی, فهیمه امین‌الرعایایی

چکیده


در طول مدت بستری، برای نوزادان نارس (Premature) و یا بیمار بستری در بخش مراقبت‌های ویژه‌ی نوزادان (NICU یا Neonatal Intensive Care Unit)، تعداد زیادی رادیوگرافی انجام می‌شود. به دلیل آن که نوزادان اندازه‌ی کوچکی دارند، در هنگام رادیوگرافی، بخش بزرگی از آناتومی آنان در میدان تابش قرار می‌گیرد. از طرف دیگر نوزادان، نسبت به پرتو حساس‌تر از بالغین هستند و خطر سرطان ناشی از تابش در آن‌ها، 2 تا 3 برابر بیشتر از بالغین است. از این رو، ارزیابی پرتوهای رسیده به نوزادان، ضروری به نظر می‌رسد. محققان کمیت‌هایی نظیر دوز ورودی پوست (ESD یا Entrance surface dose)، دوز مؤثر (ED یا Effective dose)، Kerma (Kinetic energy released in material) و پرتوهای پراکنده را در بخش مراقبت‌های ویژه‌ی نوزادان اندازه‌گیری کرده، با مقادیر استاندارد پیشنهاد شده مقایسه کرده‌اند. بیشتر مطالعات انجام شده نشان می‌دهد که هر چند میزان پرتوهای رسیده به نوزادان کم است، ولی بنا بر اصل حداقل میزان منطقی دست‌یافتنی (As low as reasonably achievable یا ALARA)، باید تابش در حداقل ممکن نگه داشته شود. هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی تحقیقات موجود در این زمینه، ارایه‌ی راه‌کارها، بیان پیشنهادها و آموزش‌های لازم برای پرتوکاران و نیز کاهش دوز در ازای حصول تصاویر با کیفیت بالا در بخش مراقبت‌های ویژه‌ی نوزادان بود.


واژگان کلیدی


دوز سطحی پوست؛ دوز مؤثر؛ بخش مراقبت‌های ویژه‌ی نوزادان

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