دوره 34، شماره 375: هفته سوم اردیبهشت ماه 1395:259-269

کاربردهای بالینی فن‌آوری کپسولاسیون سلولی در انتقال دارو و سلول

رضا قویمی , وجیهه اکبری

چکیده


مقدمه: کپسوله کردن سلول، روشی است که به منظور محبوس کردن سلول‌ها در داخل پلیمرهای نیمه‌تراوا استفاده می‌شود. به دلیل نیمه‌تراوا بودن این پلیمرها، اکسیژن و مواد مغذی مورد نیاز سلول‌ها می‌توانند عبور کنند، اما سلول‌های سیستم ایمنی که می‌توانند سبب رد سلول‌های پیوند شده شوند، قادر به عبور نمی‌باشند. از زمان ابداع مفهوم کپسولاسیون سلولی، بسیاری از دانشمندان از این فن‌آوری بیوتکنولوژی به عنوان یک جایگزین امیدوار کننده برای محافظت از سلول‌های پیوندی در مقابل پاسخ ایمنی میزبان یاد می‌کنند. انگیزه‌ی اصلی ایجاد این روش، غلبه بر مشکلات موجود در رد پیوند است و در نتیجه، نیاز به استفاده‌ی طولانی مدت از داروهای سرکوب کننده‌ی سیستم ایمنی پس از پیوند عضو کاهش می‌یابد. در این مقاله، با جستجو در مقالات منتشر شده سعی شد مرور گذرایی بر تکنولوژی کپسولاسیون سلولی و کاربردهای آن در زمینه‌ی انتقال دارو و سلول جهت کاربردهای درمانی انجام شود.

روش‌ها: جستجوی سایت Pubmed به منظور یافتن مقالات مرتبط انجام شد. تنها از مقالات انگلیسی استفاده شد.

یافته‌ها: جنبه‌های مختلف تکنیک کپسولاسیون سلول در زمینه‌ی درمان بیماری‌ها، پیش‌زمینه‌ی تاریخی، یافته‌های پژوهشی و پارامترهای مهم دخیل در این روش، به صورت اجمالی بررسی شده است.

نتیجه‌گیری: ویژگی‌های فن‌آوری کپسوله کردن سلول‌ها این اجازه را می‌دهد که بتوان از این فن‌آوری زیستی برای دارورسانی یا تحویل سلول استفاده کرد. در فن‌آوری کپسولاسیون سلولی، سلول‌های کپسوله شده، به عنوان کارخانه‌های سنتز کننده‌ی مولکول‌های درمانی مورد نظر عمل می‌کنند. با نگاه به آینده، انتظار می‌رود سلول‌درمانی با استفاده از کپسوله کردن سلول‌ها در داخل پلیمرهای نیمه‌تراوا، به طور قابل توجهی پیشرفت نماید. پتانسیل ذاتی و اثربخشی این تکنیک در زمینه‌ی محبوس‌سازی سلول‌ها با رونق گرفتن مهندسی بافت و پزشکی احیا کننده، به طور چشم‌گیری افزایش خواهد یافت.


واژگان کلیدی


کپسولاسیون سلول؛ دارورسانی؛ انتقال سلول؛ پزشکی بازساختی

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