Evaluation of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Unrelated Kidney Donors

Document Type : Original Article (s)

Authors

1 Assistant Professor, Psychosomatic Research Center AND Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Student of Medicine, Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Preventive and Community Medicine, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

4 Clinical Psychologist, Psychosomatic Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Abstract

Background: Kidney transplantation is the most absolute approach for treatment of end-stage renal disease. Transplantation from a living donor has better outcomes and less rate of acute rejection in comparison to brain-death donors. Iran is the only country in which kidney vending is legal. In this study, we have aimed to assess depression, anxiety, and stress in kidney vendors and compare with control group.Methods: This case-control study was conducted in centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, during 2016-2017. 85 living donors were included as cases, and 84 age- and education-matched persons as controls. The questionnaire of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) was filled by both groups and demographics were recorded. Data were analyzed through using Student t and chi-square tests via SPSS software.Findings: Kidney donors and controls were not different in terms of age (P = 0.133), marital status (P = 0.105), number of kids (P = 0.091), and level of education (P = 0.264), but members of two groups were different in terms of income and occupation (P < 0.001 for both). In addition, members of two groups were not different in terms of depression (P = 0.182) and stress (P = 0.276), but kidney donors had higher score of anxiety (P = 0.010).Conclusion: Income level and type of occupation were effective factors on decision making of kidney vending in kidney vendors. Anxiety level was significantly higher in kidney vendors in comparison to control group in this study. It is recommended to find sources etiology in further studies.

Keywords


  1. Malakoutian T, Hakemi MS, Nassiri AA, Rambod M, Haghighi AN, Broumand B, et al. Socioeconomic status of Iranian living unrelated kidney donors: A multicenter study. Transplant Proc 2007; 39(4): 824-5.
  2. Ghods AJ, Savaj S. Iranian model of paid and regulated living-unrelated kidney donation. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1(6): 1136-45.
  3. Mahdavi-Mazdeh M. The Iranian model of living renal transplantation. Kidney Int 2012; 82(6): 627-34.
  4. Dew MA, Jacobs CL, Jowsey SG, Hanto R, Miller C, Delmonico FL. Guidelines for the psychosocial evaluation of living unrelated kidney donors in the United States. Am J Transplant 2007; 7(5): 1047-54.
  5. Einollahi B, Taheri S. Renal transplantation practice in Iran and the Middle East: Report from Iran and a review of the literature. Ann Transplant 2008; 13(1): 5-14.
  6. Virzi A, Signorelli MS, Veroux M, Giammarresi G, Maugeri S, Nicoletti A, et al. Depression and quality of life in living related renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 2007; 39(6): 1791-3.
  7. Einollahi B. Iranian experience with the non-related renal transplantation. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2004; 15(4): 421-8.
  8. Ghahramani N, Rizvi SA, Padilla B. Paid donation: A global view. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2012; 19(4): 262-8.
  9. Timmerman L, Laging M, Westerhof GJ, Timman R, Zuidema WC, Beck DK, et al. Mental health among living kidney donors: a prospective comparison with matched controls from the general population. Am J Transplant 2015; 15(2): 508-17.
  10. Naqvi SA, Rizvi SA, Zafar MN, Ahmed E, Ali B, Mehmood K, et al. Health status and renal function evaluation of kidney vendors: A report from Pakistan. Am J Transplant 2008; 8(7): 1444-50.
  11. Pascazio L, Nardone IB, Clarici A, Enzmann G, Grignetti M, Panzetta GO, et al. Anxiety, depression and emotional profile in renal transplant recipients and healthy subjects: A comparative study. Transplant Proc 2010; 42(9): 3586-90.
  12. Lopes A, Frade IC, Teixeira L, Almeida M, Dias L, Henriques AC. Quality of life assessment in a living donor kidney transplantation program: evaluation of recipients and donors. Transplant Proc 2013; 45(3): 1106-9.
  13. Noorbala MH, Rafati-Shaldehi H, Azizabadi-Farahani M, Assari S. Renal transplantation in Iran over the past two decades: A trend analysis. Transplant Proc 2007; 39(4): 923-6.
  14. Panchu P, Ali S, Thomas T. The interrelationship of personality with stress in medical students. Int J Clin Exp Physiol 2016; 3(3): 134-9.
  15. Sharif F, Parsnia A, Mani A, Vosoghi M, Setoodeh G. Comparison of personality traits, coping styles, and psychiatric disorders in adult suicidal and non-suicidal individuals. Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery 2014; 2(3): 148-56.
  16. Brown TA, Chorpita BF, Korotitsch W, Barlow DH. Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in clinical samples. Behav Res Ther 1997; 35(1): 79-89.
  17. Sahebi A, Asghari MJ, Salari RS. Validation of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) for an Iranian population. Developmental Pscychology 2005; 1(4): 36-54. [In Persian].
  18. Ghods AJ. Changing ethics in renal transplantation: presentation of Iran model. Transplant Proc 2004; 36(1): 11-3.
  19. Zhao WY, Zeng L, Zhu YH, Wang LM, Zhou MS, Han S, et al. Psychosocial evaluation of Chinese living related kidney donors. Clin Transplant 2010; 24(6): 766-71.
  20. Fallahzadeh MK, Jafari L, Roozbeh J, Singh N, Shokouh-Amiri H, Behzadi S, et al. Comparison of health status and quality of life of related versus paid unrelated living kidney donors. Am J Transplant 2013; 13(12): 3210-4.
  21. Naqvi SA, Ali B, Mazhar F, Zafar MN, Rizvi SA. A socioeconomic survey of kidney vendors in Pakistan. Transpl Int 2007; 20(11): 934-9.
  22. Tanriverdi N, Ozcurumez G, Colak T, Duru C, Emiroglu R, Zileli L, et al. Quality of life and mood in renal transplantation recipients, donors, and controls: preliminary report. Transplant Proc 2004; 36(1): 117-9.
  23. Frade IC, Fonseca I, Dias L, Henriques AC, Martins LS, Santos J, et al. Impact assessment in living kidney donation: psychosocial aspects in the donor. Transplant Proc 2008; 40(3): 677-81.
  24. Wiedebusch S, Reiermann S, Steinke C, Muthny FA, Pavenstaedt HJ, Schoene-Seifert B, et al. Quality of life, coping, and mental health status after living kidney donation. Transplant Proc 2009; 41(5): 1483-8.
  25. Chapman CR, Cox GB. Anxiety, pain, and depression surrounding elective surgery: a multivariate comparison of abdominal surgery patients with kidney donors and recipients. J Psychosom Res 1977; 21(1): 7-15.
Volume 35, Issue 464 - Serial Number 464
November and December 2018
Pages 1962-1968
  • Receive Date: 02 November 2017
  • Revise Date: 04 October 2023
  • Accept Date: 06 April 2022
  • First Publish Date: 06 April 2022