The Effects of Crocin on Sperm Parameters, Testosterone Level, and Testicular Histomorphology in Testis Torsion in Albino Mice

Document Type : Original Article (s)


1 Associate Professor, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Natural Products and Medicinal Plants Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran


Background: Testicular torsion is associated with inflammatory response. Detorsion is one of the treatment methods in testicular torsion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of crocin administration before detorsion on sperm parameters and serum testosterone level.Methods: Mice were randomly divided into five groups. Control group had only incision in the scrotum region; three treatment groups in which left testis was twisted for two hours, and then 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg crocin was injected intraperitoneally before detorsion; and in sham group, distilled water was injected before detorsion. After 24 hours, sperm parameters were evaluated using eosin-negrosin staining, serum testosterone level was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and histopathological changes were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining via CellSens Entry software. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, at the significance level of P < 0.05.Findings: Administration of 100 mg/kg crocin improved sperm viability in treatment group. Although the mean testosterone level in the treatment groups was 1.2.01 ± 0.39 ng/µl, no significant difference was observed with the other groups. The mean epithelium height of the seminiferous tubules was 53.74 ± 1.53 μm in the control group, and 41.13±1.39 μm in the treatment groups, and in the sham group it decreased significantly (1.41 ± 31.12 μm).Conclusion: Crocin may have improved some of the study indicators by compensating the inflammatory effects.


  1. Sharp V, Kieran K, Arlen A. Testicular torsion: Diagnosis, evaluation, and management. Am Fam Physician 2013; 88(12): 835-40.
  2. Cuzzocrea S, Riley DP, Caputi AP, Salvemini D. Antioxidant therapy: A new pharmacological approach in shock, inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Pharmacol Rev 2001; 53(1): 135-59.
  3. Fattahi E, Mousavi Moghadam M, Khanbabaei R. The effect of tricyclazole on testosterone changes and testicular structure in mice. J Babol Univ Med Sci 2015; 17(2): 43-9. [In Persian].
  4. Lysiak JJ, Turner SD, Nguyen QA, Singbartl K, Ley K, Turner TT. Essential role of neutrophils in germ cell-specific apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion injury of the mouse testis. Biol Reprod 2001; 65(3): 718-25.
  5. Kheradmandi R, Jorsaraei SGA. The effect of protective factors on induced toxins in genital organs. J Babol Univ Med Sci 2017; 19(10): 48-56. [In Persian].
  6. Thaker H, Nelson CP. Adjuvant pharmacological and surgical therapy for testicular torsion: Current state of the art. J Pediatr Urol 2020; 16(6): 807-14.
  7. Rahal A, Kumar A, Singh V, Yadav B, Tiwari R, Chakraborty S, et al. Oxidative stress, prooxidants, and antioxidants: The interplay. Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014: 761264.
  8. Heidary M, Vahhabi S, Reza NJ, Delfan B, Birjandi M, Kaviani H, et al. Effect of saffron on semen parameters of infertile men. Urol J 2008; 5(4): 255-9.
  9. Akbari M, Shahidi F, Rajabi H, Kashef M, Mazaheri Z. The interactive effect of forced swimming and crocin supplementation on the expression of BAX and BCL-2 cardiomyocyte genes in male rats infected with hydrogen peroxide. J Isfahan Med Sch 2019; 37(525): 443-53. [In Persian].
  10. Gokce A, Oktar S, Koc A, Gonenci R, Yalcinkaya F, Yonden Z, et al. Protective effect of thymoquinone in experimental testicular torsion. Urol Int 2010; 85(4): 461-5.
  11. Tajaddini S, Ebrahimi S, Shirinbayan P, Bakhtiyari M, Behnam B, Joghataei mt, et al. Protective effects of manganese on the testis structure and sperm parameters of formalin-treated mice. J Isfahan Med Sch 2013; 31(243): 1018-32. [In Persian].
  12. Kiernan J. Histological and histochemical methods: Theory and practice. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann; 6th ed. 2015.
  13. Jia F, Sun Z, Yan X, Zhou B, Wang J. Effect of pubertal nano-TiO2 exposure on testosterone synthesis and spermatogenesis in mice. Arch Toxicol 2014; 88(3): 781-8.
  14. Uzun FG, Kalender S, Durak D, Demir F, Kalender Y. Malathion-induced testicular toxicity in male rats and the protective effect of vitamins C and E. Food Chem Toxicol 2009; 47(8): 1903-8.
  15. Arabaci TS, Yildirim A, Arabaci S, Ciftci S, Akin S, Sari E, et al. Treatment with estrogen receptor agonist ERbeta improves torsion-induced oxidative testis injury in rats. Life Sci 2019; 222: 203-11.
  16. Sefidgar SM, Ahmadi-Hamedani M, Jebelli JA, Narenji SR, Javaheri VA. Effect of crocin on biochemical parameters, oxidative/antioxidative profiles, sperm characteristics and testicular histopathology in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Avicenna J Phytomed 2019; 9(4): 347-61.
  17. Safavi E, Khayatnoori H. Histologic and histomorphometric study of epididymis after immobilization stress in mice. veterinary clinical pathology 2013; 7(3 (27): 193-206. [In Persian].
  18. Jacobsen FM, Rudlang TM, Fode M, Ostergren PB, Sonksen J, Ohl DA, et al. The impact of testicular torsion on testicular function. World J Mens Health 2020; 38(3): 298-307.
  19. Sadat KF, Shahrooz R, Najafi G, Razi M. Ameliorative effects of crocin on paraquat-induced oxidative stress in testis of adult mice: An experimental study. Int J Reprod Biomed 2019; 17(11): 807-18.
  20. Bilommi R, Nawas BA, Kusmayadi DD, Diposarosa R, Chairul A, Hernowo BS. The effects of glutathione on malondialdehyde expression and seminiferous tubule damage in experimental testicular torsion-detorsion in Wistar rats. J Pediatr Urol 2013; 9(6 Pt B): 1059-63.
  21. Bakhtiary Z, Shahrooz R, Ahmadi A, Malekinejad H, Mostafavi M. Study of protective effects of crocin on testicular histomorphometryand serological parameters incyclophosphamide on treated adult mice. Stud Med Sci 2014; 25(7): 663-73. [In Persian].
  22. Lei M, Guo C, Hua L, Xue S, Yu D, Zhang C, et al. Crocin attenuates joint pain and muscle dysfunction in osteoarthritis rat. Inflammation 2017; 40(6): 2086-93.
  23. Bakhtiary Z, Shahrooz R, Ahmadi A, Soltanalinejad F. Protective effects of crocin on testes of adult cyclophosphamide treated mice. Armaghane-Danesh 2014; 19(1): 12-23. [In Persian].
  24. Yang WM, Chang MS, Park SK. Effects of Psoralea corylifolia on the cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) expression and spermatogenesis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2008; 117(3): 503-6.
  25. Kaffash Elahi R,Mohajeri D. Experimental study on protective effects of Crocin on nephropathy induced by complete unilateral ureteral obstruction in the rats. Journal of Comparative Pathobiology 2016; 12(51): 1769-82. [In Persian].